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C Language is a middle procedural programming language that has been used both for operating systems and applications that allows you to directly access computer memory. Many of versions of Unix and Linux based operating systems are written in C and it is one of the thousands of programming languages currently in use for Basic programming in some colleges as the foundation of programming and still it is one of the best programming languages to learn.  it was developed at Bell Laboratories in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie.

Below are some of the features of C language.
* Reliability
* Portability
* Flexibility
* Interactivity
* Modularity
* Efficiency and Effectiveness

Below are some examples of C being used.
* Database systems
* Graphics packages
* Word processors
* Spreadsheets
* Operating system development
* Compilers and Assemblers
* Network drivers
* Interpreters


Structure and Configuration

First of all, create the initial project structure.

While Phalcon lets you use any structure you like, the structure I chose for this exercise partly implements an MVC-pattern. We have no views because it’s a RESTful project, but we have controllers and models, each with their own folder, and services. Services are the classes that implement the business logic of the project, dividing the “model” part of MVC into two pieces: data models (which communicate with the database) and business logic models.

index.php, located in the public folder, is a bootstrap file that loads all the necessary parts and configuration. Note that all our configuration files are placed in the config folder. We could put these in the bootstrap file (and this is the way shown in the official documentation), but, in my opinion, this gets unreadable in big projects, so I prefer the folder separation from the very beginning.

Creating index.php

Our first pass at index.php will load configuration and autoload classes, then initialize routes, a dependency injection container, and the PhalconPHP micro application. It will then pass control over to that micro application core, which will handle requests according to the routes, run business logic, and returns results.

Let’s take a look at the code:


try {
  / Loading Configs
  $config = require(__DIR__ . '/../app/config/config.php');

  / Autoloading classes
  require __DIR__ . '/../app/config/loader.php';

  / Initializing DI container
  /** @var \Phalcon\DI\FactoryDefault $di */
  $di = require __DIR__ . '/../app/config/di.php';

  / Initializing application
  $app = new \Phalcon\Mvc\Micro();

  / Setting DI container

  / Setting up routing
  require __DIR__ . '/../app/config/routes.php';

  / Making the correct answer after executing
    function () use ($app) {
      / Returning a successful response

  / Processing request
} catch (\Exception $e) {
  / Returning an error response

Configuring a \Phalcon\Config Object

There are several ways to store configuration files in Phalcon:

  • A YAML file
  • A JSON file
  • An INI file
  • A PHP array

Storing your configuration in a PHP array is the fastest option, and since we’re writing a high-load application and don’t need to slow down our performance, this is what we’ll do. Specifically, we’ll use a \Phalcon\Configobject to load our configuration options into the project. We’ll have a very short configuration object:


return new \Phalcon\Config(
        'database' => [
            'adapter' => 'Postgresql',
            'host' => 'localhost',
            'port' => 5432,
            'username' => 'postgres',
            'password' => '12345',
            'dbname' => 'articledemo',

        'application' => [
            'controllersDir' => "app/controllers/",
            'modelsDir' => "app/models/",
            'baseUri' => "/",

This file contains two basic configurations, one for the database and one for the application. Obviously, the database configuration is used for connecting to the database, and as for the application array, we’ll need it later since it’s used by Phalcon’s system tools. You can read about Phalcon configurations in more detail in the official documentation.

Configuring loader.php

Let’s look at our next configuration file, loader.php. The loader.php file registers namespaces with corresponding directories via the \Phalcon\Loader object. It’s even simpler:


$loader = new \Phalcon\Loader();
    'App\Services'    => realpath(__DIR__ . '/../services/'),
    'App\Controllers' => realpath(__DIR__ . '/../controllers/'),
    'App\Models'      => realpath(__DIR__ . '/../models/'),


Now all the classes from these namespaces will be automatically loaded and available. If you want to add a new namespace and directory, just add a line in this file. You can also avoid using namespaces by registering specific directories or specific files. All these possibilities are described in the PhalconPHP loader documentation.

Configuring the Dependency Injection Container

Like many other contemporary frameworks, Phalcon implements a dependency injection (DI) pattern. Objects will be initialized in the DI container and be accessible from it. Likewise, the DI container is connected to the application object, and it will be accessible from all the classes that inherit from the \Phalcon\DI\Injectableclass, such as our controllers and services.

Phalcon’s DI pattern is very powerful. I consider this component to be one of the most important in this framework and I strongly recommend you to read its entire documentation to understand how it works. It provides the key to many of Phalcon’s functions.

Let’s take a look at a few of them. Our di.php file will look like this:


use Phalcon\Db\Adapter\Pdo\Postgresql;

/ Initializing a DI Container
$di = new \Phalcon\DI\FactoryDefault();

 * Overriding Response-object to set the Content-type header globally
  function () {
      $response = new \Phalcon\Http\Response();
      $response->setContentType('application/json', 'utf-8');

      return $response;

/** Common config */
$di->setShared('config', $config);

/** Database */
  function () use ($config) {
      return new Postgresql(
          "host"     => $config->database->host,
          "username" => $config->database->username,
          "password" => $config->database->password,
          "dbname"   => $config->database->dbname,

return $di;

As you can see, our dependency injection (DI) file is little more complicated and there are some particulars you should be aware of. First off, consider the initialization string: $di = new \Phalcon\DI\FactoryDefault();. We create a FactoryDefault object which inherits \Phalcon\Di (Phalcon allows you to create any DI factory that you want). According to the documentation, FactoryDefault “automatically registers all the services provided by the framework. Thanks to this, the developer does not need to register each service individually providing a full stack framework.” This means that common services such as Request and Response will be accessible within the framework classes. You can see the full list of such services in the (360) 800-0595.

The next important thing is the setting process: There are several ways to register something in the DI container, and all of them are completely described the the PhalconPHP registering documentation. In our project, though, we use three ways: an anonymous function, a variable, and a string.

The anonymous function allows us to do many things while initializing the class. In this project specifically, we first override a Response object to set the content-type as JSON for all of the project’s responses and then initialize a database adapter, using our configuration object.

As I mentioned before, this project uses PostgreSQL. If you decide to use another database engine, just change the database adapter in the db set function. You can read more about available database adapters and about the database layer in PhalconPHP’s database documentation.

The third thing of note is that I register a $config variable which implements the \Phalcon\Config service. While it’s not actually used within our example project, I’ve decided to include it here because it’s one of most commonly-used services; other projects may need access to the configuration almost everywhere.

The final interesting thing here is the actual setShared method itself. Calling this makes a service “shared,” which means that it starts acting like a singleton. According to the documentation: “Once the service is resolved for the first time the same instance of it is returned every time a consumer retrieves the service from the container.”


Phalcon Frameworks

Phalcon is an MVC framework for PHP written in C and supplied as a compiled PHP extension. This is what makes it one of the fastest frameworks available (to be completely honest the fastest one is Yaf, but it is a micro framework and has much, much more limited functionality than Phalcon). PhalconPHP doesn’t need any long operations with PHP files and it doesn’t need to be interpreted at every request—it’s loaded into RAM once when your web server is started and consumes very few resources.

MVC frameworks have been considered best practice in web development for a long time—by now it is a sort of a professional standard, so most web developers are familiar with at least one MVC framework for PHP: Symfony, Yii, Laravel, CodeIgniter, Zend Framework, etc. They each have their own advantages and disadvantages, but what do they all have in common? All of them are written in PHP and consist of many included PHP files with a huge amount of logic that has to be run by the interpreter on every request, every single time your code runs. While this makes for great transparency, we pay with performance. Large amounts of code and lots of included files cost a great deal of memory and time, especially in PHP (since it’s interpreted, not compiled). Yes, the situation has become much better in PHP 7, but there is still lots to be improved, and PhalconPHP brings those improvements to the table.

Phalcon is an open source framework quite popular among developers. A full-stack PHP framework delivered as a C-extension.  It is a combination of PHP and C language. Phalcon is developed by Andres Gutierrez and his group of collaborators.  Before starting Phalcon Framework, the user should have knowledge of HTML, CSS and PHP along with an understanding of MVC framework.

The performance of Phalcon is a feature which distinguishes it from other traditional frameworks of PHP. Phalcon has a combination of both PHP and C; each of them can be used as a standalone module. The compilation of every request is considered on a higher speed in Phalcon which makes everything seem out-of-the-box.

Phalcon Benchmarks

C Language
Phalcon is compatible with C which increases the compilation rate. Also, C in combination with Phalcon provides Object Relational Mapping (ORM) which provides consistency with models created. Every model created in Phalcon is associated with the table of relational database. ORM in Phalcon is purely implemented in C.

Developer Tools
Developer tools are used for developing web application. These tools help in generating scaffold application with a combination of all features (C – Create, R – Read, U – Update, D – Delete). Developer tools also include extensible support for third-party libraries to be implemented in Phalcon.

Object Relational Mapping
Phalcon supports a wide range of databases. It is not limited to access to relational databases. It supports both relational and non-relational databases which are like adding a feather to the cap of Phalcon framework.

Phalcon Website / Downloads: 4409078046